What are the manifestations associated with EDS?

There are varying degrees of severity with EDS that can range from having loose joints which may dislocate easily with few other complications, to connective tissues which are so fragile — the skin splits and gaps with minimal injury, to extreme dislocations/laxity of joints which don't stay in place, to major blood vessels that may rupture and produce internal bleeding or the bowel may rupture. EDS may include:

Skin

Some patients may have fragile soft velvet-like skin, stretchy skin (hyperextensibility), very doughy skin, and/or some have thin skin which shows the underlying blood vessels. The condition of fragile skin that tears easily and that is susceptible to easy bruising can be mild to severe. Other characteristics of EDS patients’ skin includes "cigarette paper" scars, slow healing, severe scarring, slow and poor wound healing, and development of molluscoid pseudotumors (fleshy lesions associated with scars over pressure areas).

Joints

Joint hypermobility loose/unstable joints which are prone to frequent dislocations and/or subluxations; joint pain; hyperextensible joints (they move beyond the joint's normal range); shoulders, spine, elbows, wrists, knees, ankles, and laxity in the hands and fingers; and early onset of osteoarthritis.

Hollow Organs

Aortic root dilatation, aortic aneurysms, aortic rupture, bowel rupture and uterine fragility have all been noted in patients with EDS. These are more commonly found in the Vascular (VEDS) Type, though.

Miscellaneous/Less Common

Chronic, early onset, debilitating musculoskeletal pain (usually associated with the Hypermobility Type); Scoliosis at birth and scleral fragility (associated with the Kyphoscoliosis Type); poor muscle tone (associated with the Arthrochalasia Type); mitral valve prolapse; and gum disease.

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